17 May 2012
The below chronology shows how the ICBL kick started the global movement to ban landmines, and how the campaign's diverse global members play a vital role - both then and now - in driving the world forward to achieve the movement's humanitarian aims.The achievements and milestones laid out below are just a snapshot of the ICBL and our partners' activities over the last 20 years, and the huge inroads made by states under the Mine Ban Treaty. To download this chronology click on the PDF icon in the top right corner.
2012 – 20th anniversary of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines
- January – Finland accedes to the Mine Ban Treaty, committing to destroy its stockpiled landmines by 2016.
- March – In partnership with Colombian NGO Archangeles and the United Nations, the ICBL runs a month-long global "Lend Your Leg" action in solidarity with landmine survivors around the world and in support of the Mine Ban Treaty.
- May – Somalia accedes to the Mine Ban Treaty, the last country from Sub-Saharan Africa to join the ban treaty, bringing the treaty’s membership to 160 States Parties.
- October – The ICBL celebrates its 20th anniversary with an event in New York featuring ICBL veterans, mine action leaders, and landmine survivors.
- The ICBL carries out advocacy missions to Greece, Oman, Senegal, and Vietnam.
2011 - Push for Progress by Phnom Penh
- January –The ICBL merges with the Cluster Munition Coalition (CMC) to become the ICBL-CMC, consisting of one governance body supporting the work of the two global campaigns. Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor is also brought into the new organization.
- March – The ICBL launches its count-down to the Mine Ban Treaty’s Eleventh Meeting of States Parties under the slogan of "Push for Progress by Phnom Penh."
- April – The ICBL participates in a conference on international cooperation and victim assistance in Albania.
- November – Cambodia hosts the Eleventh Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in Phnom Penh. Landmine Monitor Report 2011 is released.
- South Sudan and Tuvalu accede to the Mine Ban Treaty, becoming the first countries to join the ban treaty in four years.
- ICBL member Norwegian People’s Aid helps Guinea-Bissau finish its clearance obligations. The ICBL undertakes advocacy missions to Afghanistan, Cambodia, Lebanon, Tajikistan, and Turkey.
2010 – The United States consults on its landmine policy review
- March – ICBL members in 60 countries contact US embassy representatives to urge the US policy review to conclude with a decision to join the Mine Ban Treaty.
- April – The ICBL participates in a conference on victim assistance in Vienna.
- May – A letter signed by two-thirds of U.S. Senate is sent to President Obama, urging that the US policy review conclude with a decision to join the Mine Ban Treaty.
- November – The Tenth Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty is held in Geneva. Landmine Monitor Report 2010 is released.
- The ICBL undertakes advocacy missions to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Thailand, and Vietnam. ICBL member Danish Church Aid helps Albania finish its clearance obligations.
2009 – “Mission Possible” – Mine Ban Treaty’s Second Review Conference
- March – The ICBL launches a count-down to the Mine Ban Treaty’s Second Review Conference under the slogan of “A Mine-Free World: Mission Possible.”
- December – Colombia hosts the Second Review Conference of the Mine Ban Treaty, in Cartagena, also called the “Cartagena Summit on a Mine-Free World.” The US attends (its first-ever participation in a formal meeting of the treaty) and confirms that President Obama has ordered a review of US policy on banning landmines. A special 10-year edition of the annual Landmine Monitor report is released.
- The ICBL undertakes advocacy missions to Afghanistan, Cambodia, Croatia, Mongolia, Senegal and Turkey, and contributes to regional seminars convened in Albania, Nicaragua, South Africa, Tajikistan and Thailand during the lead-up to the Second Mine Ban Treaty Review Conference.
2008 – First extensions for land clearance deadlines
- September – ICBL sets up a Victim Assistance Focal Point network to support more intensive advocacy on victim assistance.
- November – At the Ninth Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in Geneva, the ICBL provides critiques on the first fifteen States Parties that have requested extensions to their ten-year mine clearance deadlines. Landmine Monitor Report 2008 is released.
- The ICBL conducts advocacy missions to and participates in regional meetings in Azerbaijan, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Libya, Morocco, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, Poland and Turkey.
2007 – A Success in Progress: The Mine Ban Treaty’s first decade
- February – The ICBL joins the Steering Committee of the Cluster Munition Coalition and beings to actively contribute to the Oslo Process aimed at creating a new treaty to ban cluster munitions that pose unacceptable harm to civilians.
- March - The UN Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities is opened for signature in New York.
- April – The ICBL and the Tajik Campaign organize a national implementation workshop in Tajikistan.
- August – Heavily mine-affected Iraq ratifies the Mine Ban Treaty.
- November – Jordan hosts the Eighth Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty at the Dead Sea where Palau announced its accession to the treaty. During the year, the ICBL contributes to developing a comprehensive process to review mine clearance extension requests, approved at the 8MSP. Landmine Monitor Report 2007 is released.
- The ICBL undertakes advocacy missions to, and participates in national and regional workshops in Algeria, Bahrain, Chile, Greece, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Nepal, Oman, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Serbia, and Ukraine, as well as Taiwan. The ICBL organizes a national workshop on treaty implementation in Sana’a, Yemen, and a global meeting of the ICBL and Landmine Monitor is held in Aden, Yemen. ICBL campaigners hold special 10th anniversary events in Austria, Belgium, Canada and Norway.
2006 - Act now to implement the Mine Ban Treaty
- March – ICBL campaigners worldwide use the sixth anniversary of the treaty becoming international law to call for governments to “Act Now!” to implement their obligations under the ban.
- April – ICBL campaigners and Monitor researchers gather in Cambodia for a global meeting.
- May – ICBL participates in stockpile destruction ceremony and Mine Ban Treaty workshop in Belarus.
- September – The Seventh Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty is held in Geneva. Landmine Monitor Report 2006 is released.
- November – ICBL and the Senegalese Campaign organize an implementation workshop in Senegal.
- The ICBL undertakes advocacy and research missions to Belarus, Cambodia, India, Lebanon, Poland, Senegal, Thailand and Vietnam.
2005 – Use of landmines decreases
- November – ICBL participates in Algeria’s final stockpile destruction ceremony.
- November – Croatia hosts the Sixth Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in Zagreb.Landmine Monitor Report 2005 is released.
- December - For the first time, China votes in favor of the annual pro-ban UN General Assembly resolution supporting the Mine Ban Treaty.
- The ICBL undertakes advocacy missions to Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei-Darussalam, Georgia, Libya, and Mongolia.
2004 – First Review Conference of the Mine Ban Treaty
- April – Following engagement by the ICBL, Turkmenistan destroys tens of thousands of stockpiled antipersonnel mines that it initially sought to retain for training.
- September – An international symposium on the challenges of achieving a mine-free world is held in Ottawa and the ICBL’s campaign documents and materials are donated to Canada’s national archives.
- December – Kenya hosts the First Review Conference of the Mine Ban Treaty, also called the “Nairobi Summit on a Mine-Free World.” More than 350 ICBL campaigners from 83 countries attended the conference promoting the slogan “Wanted: A Mine-Free World.” A special 5-year edition of the annual Landmine Monitor report is released.
- ICBL and Landmine Monitor researchers and campaigners hold regional meetings in Afghanistan, Burundi, and Colombia, while a global meeting is held in Sarajevo.
2003 – First stockpile destruction deadlines are met
- March – All States Parties with stockpiles to destroy complete their obligations by the first stockpile destruction deadline four years after entry into force.
- September – The Fifth Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty is held in Bangkok, Thailand. The ICBL holds a general meeting to adopt its internal Action Plan for campaigning towards the First Review Conference. Landmine Monitor Report 2003 is released.
- September – Major landmine stockpiler Belarus accedes to the Mine Ban Treaty. Greece ratifies and Turkey accedes to the Mine Ban Treaty on the same day in a planned initiative to demonstrate their support for the ban.
- ICBL and Landmine Monitor campaigners hold regional meetings in Kyrgyzstan, Sri Lanka, and United Arab Emirates, while a global meeting is held in Rome.
2002 – Affected states continue to join the Mine Ban Treaty
- September – The Fourth Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty is held in Geneva. Landmine Monitor Report 2002 is released.
- Heavily mine-affected Afghanistan accedes to the Mine Ban Treaty, while Angola completes ratification.
- ICBL campaigners and Landmine Monitor researchers hold regional meetings in Azerbaijan, Chile, Ethiopia, and Switzerland while a global meeting is held in Paris.
2001 – Nicaragua hosts Third annual Mine Ban Treaty meeting
- September – Nicaragua hosts the Third Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty held in Managua, despite travel delays resulting from the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the US days earlier. Landmine Monitor Report 2001 is released.
- ICBL campaigners and Landmine Monitor researchers hold regional meetings in Armenia, Brazil, Kenya, Lebanon, Nepal, South Korea, South Africa, and Thailand, while a global meeting is held in Washington DC.
2000 – Mine Ban Treaty reaches 100 States Parties
- July - Mauritania becomes the 100th country to ratify the Mine Ban Treaty. Throughout the year ICBL campaigners and Landmine Monitor researchers gather for regional meetings in Argentina, Belgium, Djibouti, Egypt, Japan, Togo, and Ukraine, while a global meeting is held in The Netherlands.
- December – The Second Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty is held in Geneva. Landmine Monitor Report 2000 is released.
1999 – The Mine Ban Treaty becomes law
- March – Mine Ban Treaty enters into force on 1 March 1999, becoming binding international law. The ICBL celebrates with bell-ringing and other actions in more than 30 countries.
- May – Mozambique hosts the First Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in Maputo, where the first annual Landmine Monitor report is launched.
- September – The Mine Ban Treaty’s first Intersessional Standing Committee meetings are held in Geneva.
1998 – Mine Ban Treaty’s 40th ratification is secured in record time
- February – During the opening ceremony of the Nagano Winter Olympics in Japan, landmine survivor Chris Moon carries the Olympic torch into the stadium.
- February – The ICBL holds an annual general meeting in Frankfurt, Germany, where the ICBL’s Steering Committee is renamed the Coordination Committee and its membership expanded. Liz Bernstein replaces Jody Williams as ICBL coordinator.
- March – Hungary hosts a regional meeting to promote the Mine Ban Treaty in Budapest attended by 19 countries from Eastern Europe.
- May – IPPNW and the ICBL convene an international conference on landmines in Moscow, attended by NGOs from Russia and 20 neighbouring countries.
- June – The ICBL creates the Landmine Monitor initiative to verify nations’ compliance with the Mine Ban Treaty and the humanitarian response more generally.
- September – The first global meeting of the Landmine Monitor is held in Dublin, Ireland.
- September – Burkina Faso becomes the 40th country to ratify the Mine Ban Treaty, triggering the treaty’s entry into force on 1 March 1999. The ICBL convenes the first meeting of the Landmine Monitor verification initiative in Dublin.
- October – Philanthropist George Soros and Canadian foreign minister Lloyd Axworthy announce funding support for the ICBL.
1997 – Mine Ban Treaty adopted and opened for signature
- January – Princess Diana visits Angola under the auspices of the British Red Cross and photographs of her meeting landmine victims and visiting a mine clearance operation attract global media attention. President Clinton announces US intent to pursue an international ban on landmine transfers through the Conference on Disarmament.
- February – The ICBL holds its Fourth International NGO Conference on Landmines in Maputo, Mozambique. Mozambique and South Africa declare unilateral bans on antipersonnel landmines. Austria hosts the first preparatory meeting of the Ottawa Process in Vienna, where 111 countries discuss the elements of a comprehensive ban treaty.
- April – HRW launches a report identifying US landmine manufacturers and the US campaign launches a stigmatization campaign against the manufacturers.
- May – Two dozen African states pledge their support for the landmine ban during the OAU Conference Toward a Landmine-Free Africa meeting held in Johannesburg, South Africa. On the last day of the conference, South Africa begins the destruction of its landmine stockpile.
- June – Belgium hosts the second meeting of the Ottawa Process in Brussels, where 110 countries endorse a declaration affirming their intent to conclude the negotiation and signing of a ban treaty before the end of 1997.
- September – After two weeks of negotiations in Oslo, the US withdraws proposed amendments that it acknowledges have been unable to gain enough support and the Mine Ban Treaty is adopted on 18 September 1997. The ICBL presents governments with an action plan for the entry into force of the ban treaty by the year 2000.
- October – The ICBL and Jody Williams are awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their crucial role in starting a process that “in the space of a few years changed a ban on antipersonnel mines from a vision to a feasible reality.”
- December – A total of 122 nations sign the Mine Ban Treaty in Ottawa, Canada. At the same time, the People's Treaty endorsing the ban treaty is signed by thousands of people around the world.
- The ICBL’s Steering Committee of five of the original founding organizations is expanded to reflect the growing movement, particularly in mine-affected countries.
1996 - Canada launches the Ottawa Process to ban landmines
- January – During the continued CCW negotiations, the ICBL convenes a meeting of countries supportive of a ban, where there is agreement to work toward an immediate ban on landmines rather than their “eventual elimination.”
- March – The VVAF sponsors two full-page advertisements in the New York Times calling on President Clinton to ban landmines, including an open letter from retired General Norman Schwarzkopf and 14 other high-ranking retired US military officials.
- April – New Zealand renounces the use of antipersonnel landmines and commits to work for a total ban. The CCW Review Conference in Geneva adopts a weak amended protocol permitting continued use of antipersonnel mines. On the margins of the conference, a group of 14 pro-ban governments meet with ICBL representatives to strategize on the way forward.
- September – The six presidents of Central America announce they will ban landmines, becoming the first “mine-free” region in the world.
- October – Canada hosts a conference in Ottawa attended by 75 governments as well as the ICBL and international agencies. It concludes with a challenge by Canadian Foreign Minister Lloyd Axworthy to all governments to negotiate a treaty banning antipersonnel landmines and return to Ottawa to sign it in December 1997, thus launching the “Ottawa Process” to ban landmines.
- December – A total of 155 countries support a UNGA resolution proposed by the US supporting the negotiation of a treaty banning landmines as soon as possible. The Swedish parliament adopts a unilateral ban on antipersonnel mines.
1995 – First national law banning antipersonnel mines
- March – Belgium becomes the first country to pass a national law banning landmines.
- May – Pope John Paul II calls for a “definitive end to the production and use” of antipersonnel mines.
- June – The Cambodia Campaign to Ban Landmines and the NGO Forum on Cambodia host the Third International NGO Conference on Landmines, a three-day event attended by more than 400 people from 42 countries.
- September – At the First Review Conference of the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) in Vienna, the ICBL actively promotes its call for a total ban and the number of pro-ban governments rises to 14 as a result. The conference does not conclude and the negotiations are suspended until January 1996.
- October – The annual Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) Review Conference is held in Geneva, Switzerland. At the conference the ICBL actively promotes its call for a total ban amongst the public as well as delegates, staging awareness-raising events such as the first shoe pyramid built in front of the UN building, circulating petitions and fighting to ensure the voices of the ICBL’s landmine survivors at the conference were supported. The number of pro-ban governments rises to 14 as a result
- November – The ICRC launches an international media campaign to mobilize support for the landmine ban.
1994 – ICRC declares its support for a ban on antipersonnel landmines
- January – The New York Times Sunday magazine runs a major feature on the landmine problem, demining efforts, and the campaign to ban landmines. The ICRC holds a seminar for military experts.
- February – The ICRC's president declares that from a “from humanitarian point of view we believe that a worldwide ban on antipersonnel landmines is the only truly effective solution.”
- March – UNICEF Director Jim Grant calls for a landmine ban.
- April – At a Council on Foreign Relations seminar on landmines UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros Ghali calls for a total ban on landmines.
- May – ICBL holds its Second International NGO Conference on Landmines in Geneva, with representatives from more than 75 NGOs.
- June – Senator Leahy holds a hearing on landmines with testimonies in support of a ban from Ken Rutherford, the Red Cross, and others. Leahy subsequently introduces legislation to establish a moratorium on the production of landmines with 55 Senate co-sponsors.
- June – Workers from Italian companies involved in the production of antipersonnel landmines call on the Italian government to support an immediate ban on production and trade of landmines as well as humanitarian actions for victims. Two days later Italy’s Minister of Defense announces that “Italy will not produce and export antipersonnel landmines any longer.”
- September – At the UN, President Clinton calls for the “eventual elimination” of landmines. In his first report on mine clearance, the UN Secretary General notes that the "best and most effective way" to address the global landmine problem is through a total ban.
- November – The government of the Netherlands agrees to destroy its landmine stockpile and support the call for a total ban.
1993 – First international meeting of NGOs held in London
- February – France makes a formal request to the UN Secretary-General for a review of the CCW.
- April – The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) hosts a three-day symposium on landmines in Montreux, Switzerland with 60 representatives of governments, the military, mine producers, clearance specialists and NGOs.
- May – The ICBL holds its First International NGO Conference on Landmines in London, with 50 representatives from 40 NGOs. The meeting recognizes the six ICBL founding NGOs as the ICBL Steering Committee and Jody Williams as ICBL coordinator.
- September – The US Department of State issues its report “Hidden Killers: The Global Problem with Uncleared Landmines.”
- October – The UN General Assembly First Committee passes a resolution calling on the Secretary General to submit a report on the problems caused by landmines and other unexploded ordnance. It also passes a resolution proposed by France calling for a review of the CCW and a resolution proposed by the US calling for an international moratorium on trade of antipersonnel landmines.
1992 – International Campaign to Ban Landmines is established
- February – A petition from 1,400 Australians calling for a ban on the manufacture and use of landmines is presented to the Australian government.
- May – Handicap International (HI), Mines Advisory Group (MAG) and PHR issue a joint call to “Stop the Coward's War” through a total ban on landmines.
- October – Six NGOs (HI, HRW, MI, MAG, PHR, and VVAF) meet in New York and agree to coordinate campaigning efforts and sponsor the first International NGO Conference on Landmines in London in 1993. Campaign Coordinator Jody Williams is charged with drawing up the joint call of the ICBL and overseeing conference planning.
- October – President Bush signs into law a one-year export moratorium on antipersonnel mines, an initiative sponsored by Senator Patrick Leahy and Congressman Lane Evans that received a Senate vote of 100 in favour. Over the next two years, landmine export bans are instituted by producers Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, and South Africa.
- December – The European Parliament passes a resolution calling upon member states to ratify the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and make it applicable to internal conflicts, to declare a five-year moratorium on the export of antipersonnel mines and the training to lay them, and to prioritize mine clearance and the necessary funds to do so.
1991 – NGOs supporting a ban on landmines begin collaborating
- September - "The Coward's War: Landmines in Cambodia" is jointly issued by Asia Watch of Human Rights Watch (HRW) and Physicians for Human Rights (PHR). At the same time both organizations call for a total ban on landmines.
- October – Cambodia’s Prince Sihanouk calls for a ban on landmines.
- November – US non-governmental organization (NGO) Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF) and German Medico International (MI) agree to jointly launch a campaign of advocacy to bring together NGOs in a coordinated effort to ban landmines; VVAF hires Jody Williams to spearhead the campaign.